BRAF+ melanoma
What makes it different, makes it vulnerable

Disease characteristics associated with BRAF mutation

High-risk disease characteristics are associated with BRAF mutation1-9

Several prognostic factors have been identified to inform the potential outcome of disease in melanoma patients, many of which have been associated with BRAF mutation (see table).1-9

Increased CNS metastases identified in BRAF+ melanoma6-9

Metastasis to the central nervous system, specifically the brain, is associated with a median survival of less than 5 months and is a negative prognostic factor for patients with metastatic disease.10,11 Multiple studies have identified an increase of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients with BRAF mutations compared with those without BRAF mutations.6-9

Incidence of brain metastases in cutaneous melanoma by BRAF status (N=74)6

Understanding the relationship between BRAF mutation and several negative prognostic factors suggests that these patients may be more vulnerable and at risk for a worse prognosis than patients with wild-type BRAF.

  1. Gershenwald JE, et al; for members of the American Joint Committee on Cancer Melanoma Expert Panel and the International Melanoma Database and Discovery Platform. Melanoma staging: evidence-based changes in the American Joint Committee on Cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(6):472-92.
  2. Thomas NE, et al. Association between NRAS and BRAF mutational status and melanoma-specific survival among patients with higher-risk primary melanoma. JAMA Oncol. 2015;1(3):359-68.
  3. Hugdahl E, et al. BRAF-V600E expression in primary nodular melanoma is associated with aggressive tumour features and reduced survival. Br J Cancer. 2016;114(7):801-8.
  4. Ellerhorst JA, et al. Clinical correlates of NRAS and BRAF mutations in primary human melanoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17(2):229-35.
  5. Long GV, et al. Prognostic and clinicopathologic associations of oncogenic BRAF in metastatic melanoma. J Clin Oncol. 2011;29(10):1239-46.
  6. Nowara E, et al. Impact of BRAF V600 mutation in metastatic cutaneous melanoma patients treated with systemic therapy on brain metastases and survival. Presented at SMR 2015. [Abstract 164].
  7. El-Osta H, et al. BRAF mutations in advanced cancers: clinical characteristics and outcomes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(10):e25806.
  8. Jakob JA, et al. NRAS mutation status is an independent prognostic factor in metastatic melanoma. Cancer. 2012;118(16):4014-23.
  9. Thumar J, et al. MEK targeting in N-RAS mutated metastatic melanoma. Mol Cancer. 2014;13:45.